Wednesday, December 19, 2007

Ozone Layer

"The ozone layer" refers to the ozone within stratosphere, where over 90% of the earth's ozone resides. Ozone is an irritating, corrosive, colorless gas with a smell something like burning electrical wiring. In fact, ozone is easily produced by any high-voltage electrical arc (spark plugs, Van de Graaff generators, Tesla coils, arc welders). Each molecule of ozone has three oxygen atoms and is produced when oxygen molecules (O2) are broken up by energetic electrons or high energy radiation.

Football (soccer)

Football (soccer)
Association football, commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players, and it is the most fashionable sport in the world. It is a ball game played on a rectangular grass or artificial turf field, with a goal at each of the short ends. The purpose of the game is to score by manoeuvring the ball into the opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeeper is the only player permitted to use their hands or arms to propel the ball; the rest of the team usually use their feet to kick the ball into position, occasionally using their torso or head to intercept a ball in mid air. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout, depending on the format of the competition.
The modern game was codified in England following the formation of The Football Association, whose 1863 Laws of the Game created the foundations for the way the sport is played today. Football is governed internationally by the Federation Internationale de Football Association (International Federation of Association Football), commonly known by the acronym FIFA. The most prestigious international football competition is the World Cup, held every four years. This event, the most widely viewed in the world, boasts an audience twice that of the Summer Olympics.

Friday, December 14, 2007

Christmas Day

Christmas is a enjoyable religious holiday when Christians rejoice the birth of Jesus Christ. The Christmas chronicle comes from the Bible. An angel appeared to shepherd and told them that a Savior had been born to Mary and Joseph in a stable in Bethlehem. Three Judicious Men from the East (the Magi) followed a amazing star which led them to the baby Jesus to whom they paid homage and presented gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.
To people all over the earth, Christmas is a flavor of giving and receiving presents. In some European countries, priest Christmas, or Saint Nicholas, comes into houses in the night and leaves gifts for the children. Saint Nicholas is represented as a kindheartedly man with a red cloak and long white beard. Another nature, the Norse God Odin, ride on a mysterious flying horse across the sky in the winter to prize people with gifts. These different myths passed across the ages to make the present day Santa Claus.
On December 24, Christmas Eve, Santa hitches his eight reindeer to a toboggan and loads it with presents. The reindeer drag him and his sleigh through the sky to deliver presents to children all around the earth, that is, if they had been good all year. Several American towns maintain the strength of Santa Claus.
Santa Claus exists only in our imagination. But he, Saint Nicholas, and father Christmas are feelings of giving. Christmas has been associated with gift giving since the Wise Men brought gifts to welcome the newborn Jesus Christ.In eagerness of Santa's visit, American children pay attention to their parents read "The Night previous to Christmas" before they go to bed on Christmas Eve

Thursday, December 06, 2007

Uses of Ginger

There are array of uses suggested for ginger. A tea brewed from the is a folk medicine for colds. Ginger ale and ginger beer have been suggested as "stomach settlers" for generation in countries where the beverages are made and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the US. Ginger has also been historically used to take care of inflammation which some scientific studies support, though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen. Research on rats suggests that ginger may be valuable for treating diabetes.

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

The Banyan Tree

In India the Banyan Tree is consider as National tree. This huge tree overlooks over its neighbors and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees, easily covering several acres. It sends off new shoots from its roots, so that one tree is really a interweave of branches, roots, and trunks. The banyan tree restart and lives for an incredible length of time--thus it is thought of as the everlasting tree.

Its size and leafy shelter are valued in India as a place of relax and mirror image, not to mention defense from the hot sun! It is still the focus and gathering place for local councils and meetings. India has a long history of worship this tree; it figures importantly in many of the oldest stories of the nation.

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

Abraham Lincoln

The brave man of the familiar People. It had been an extended time coming. Terribly separated by the issue of slavery, thirty-one million American citizens were in 1860
Called upon to vote for 16th President of the United States. The Democratic Party meets at its National Party Convention in Charleston, South Carolina, in order to choose their candidate in favor of the presidency. Split over slavery, each section, Northern Democrats on the one hand and Southern Democrats on the other, presented its own conflicting proposal for the party platform.
In February 1860, Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi claimed that neither the Congress of the United States nor the territorial parliaments had the control to handle slavery.

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

Adam Smith

He was born in 1723 in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland, fatherless. The accurate date of his birth is unidentified. He was baptized June 5, 1723. At the age of fifteen, he begins his school at Glasgow and Oxford. In 1751, after he finished school, he was obtained a job at Glasgow University where he became the new Professor of judgment. There he lectured on beliefs, expression, jurisprudence and the political economy.

Just eight years after his training career began; he published his work. The Theory of ethical Sentiments. This show that he could write and he recognized himself in the world. In 1776, a query into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations was published. Immediately the book was a success. It had a remarkable effect on how people attention. Although it took him ten years to write, he became a very rich man from it.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

A Team Player

The superiority of being a team player is one that everyone should enjoy. A team player is someone with good qualities who makes contributions and has the force to motivate each one around him or her. This individuality can be used in many areas such as games, family life, and in the company. You are more expected to be hired in the production if you have and demonstrate the qualities of a team player. As the business climate gets tougher before it gets improved, it is time to hike the talk if you want to develop.

Managers will require all the cooperation they can get. To land a high paying job with a major business you need to be a team player. Having good qualities is one of the most significant characters you can have. Being a team performer thinks of the team as a whole and is not selfish in their views and decisions.

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

A Snapshot of Macro-Economics

Economics is the learning of making choices. High school and college students all over required to take economic courses in order to achieve a diploma. Why is economics so important because it provides a guide for students for real-world situations Economics is divided into two types microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics is the study of economics at a slim level. For example absorbed on how a detailed business functions is microeconomics.
Studying the world economy is classified as Macroeconomics; its center on a much broader level. All students must understand the concept of insufficiency. Scarcity is a condition that occurs because society has unlimited wants and needs however the amount of property is limited. Unlimited wants and needs are what encourage us to create goods and services. We are never satisfied therefore we always have a want or need. On the other hand our income is limited.

Tuesday, October 09, 2007

A cold winter morning

I am lying on a white, sandy beach with the glowing sun beating down directly on my tanned summer body. I notice the beautiful, Puerto Rican Cabana boy heading over to replenish my newly empty Margarita glass. I look around my private beach and at the crystal clear, sparkling ocean water tempting me warmly in to its open arms. I get up from my bed on the sand, walking gradually to the water. The sand is flaming my bare feet with such passion that I speed my walk up almost into a jog. As I reach the waterfront I stop, as a falling wave is heading toward my glazing body; I step closer to be in its direct path. I move smoothly in with such grace; I prepare myself for the cool, refreshing bath. I hear an alarm bell screaming, I look around in a panic as it is hurting my ears and giving me a powerful headache. My beach is wandering away, and then it is gone. The ‘warmness my body feels is gone.
I open my eyes; I am gloomy, lifeless room. My alarm clock is going off and the sound can only be compared with exhausted your fingernails across a chalkboard.

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

A Business Plan

The following production plan has been formulated to obtain $200,000 in capital to launch a coffeehouse on the college grounds of Doane College named The Orange Cup. This arrangement will also serve as a formal sketch for the first five year's of operation. The financial forecasts show that this asset has significant pledge for the future.
The Orange Cup will provide for the Doane College Community a comfortable atmosphere while serve quality coffee at a reasonably priced with extraordinary service. An ample variety of coffee products including, gourmet coffees, latte, cappuccino, espresso, and iced coffee, will be offered at The Orange Cup. In addition, The Orange Cup will recommend juice, pop, and bottled water, hot cocoa, hot cider, and tea.

The marking plan for The Orange Cup is to attract students and staff to the coffeehouse to continue in a relaxed atmosphere, or for those customers with excited schedules, the expediency of our products.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

A simple Girl

Around and around it soared in brutal circles, tearing from side to side her animated temples. At a standstill, they did not do anything. Still, they simply laid there with faces of chalk, invalid of all human emotions. She could not look at them in hopes of relieve, for long. The cherry rivers that flowed across her eyes, streamed down her steaming cheeks, made vision impossible.
Life was simply the stack of decayed flesh that enclosed her. From his immortal lips hung the bodies of all those who died struggle for him and all those who had tampered with self luxury. For that, she dammed him for all eternity; in every form he understood she dammed him. He had been her guiding angle and now it became evident to her. No prayer would pass her conditions lips, for this had been his movement she had fought and they had lost other than just a clash.

Friday, September 14, 2007

A Civil Role Model

The word civil carries a lot of power. The usage needs to be carefully considered when it's entered into a sentence or an expression. Civil means a wide difference of things. It can be defined as a way to be attentive of the forms required for good reproduction. It can also be a means to the needs and affairs of the common public. However, the latter of the two definitions can also be extended to include a definition of the private rights and the remedy sought by action or costume. The point is that the word civil has a greater significance that has been embraced by our American legal traditions. It is the premise that law is there to provide the people and the lawyers are nothing more than mere guardians of law.
These are thoughts that were measured during the class viewing of A Civil Action. In the events of the case, there were many concerns that were brought up about our permissible culture.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007


Cucumbers are usually harvested while still green. They can be eaten unrefined or cooked, or pickled. Although a smaller amount nutritious than most fruit, the fresh cucumber seeds are still a source of vitamin K, vitamin C, and potassium, also providing nutritional fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, folate, and manganese. Cucumbers are used in the attractive food art, graded manger.

Cucumbers can be pickled for taste and longer shelf life. As compare to eating cucumbers, pickling cucumbers tend to be shorter, thicker, less regularly-shaped, and have rough skin with tiny white- or black-dotted spines. They are not at all waxed. Color can be different from creamy yellow to pale or dark green. Pickling cucumbers are sometimes sold fresh as "Kirby" or "Liberty" cucumbers. The pickling practice removes or degrades a large amount of the nutrient content, particularly that of vitamin C. Pickled cucumbers are waterlogged in vinegar or brine or a combination, often along with a mixture of spices.

• English cucumbers can cultivate as long as 2 feet. They are nearly seedless and are sometimes marketed as "Burp less."
• Japanese cucumbers (kyūri) are mild, deep green, slenderand have a bumpy, ridged skin. They can be used for slicing, pickling, salads, etc., and are available year-round.
• Mediterranean cucumbers are smooth-skinned, small and mild. Like the English and Mediterranean cucumbers are nearly seedless.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007


Java (Javanese, Indonesian, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an land mass of Indonesia and the place of its capital city, Jakarta. Once the centre of controlling Hindu kingdoms and the heart of the colonial Dutch East Indies, Java now plays a governing role in the money-making and supporting life of Indonesia. With a population of 124 million, it is the most heavily populated island in the world; it is also one of the most thickly populated regions on Earth.

Java shaped mostly as the result of volcanic events, Java is the 13th leading island in the world and the fifth major island of Indonesia. A sequence of volcanic mountains forms an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, and most populace are bilingual, with Indonesian as their second language. While the popular of Javanese are Muslim (or at least supposedly Muslim), Java has a different mixture of religious beliefs and cultures.

Tuesday, August 14, 2007

Java Coffee

Java coffee is a coffee bent on the island of Java. In the USA, the term "Java" independently is slang for coffee generally. The Indonesian phrase Kopi Jawa refers not only to the origin of the coffee, but is used to distinguish the black, very sweet coffee, strong with powdered grains in the drink, from other forms of the drink.The Dutch began farming of coffee trees on Java (part of the Dutch East Indies) in the 17th century and it has been export internationally since. The coffee farming systems found on Java have changed significantly over time.
A rust disease in the late 1880s killed off much of the plantation stocks in Sukabumi, before distribution to Central Java and parts of East Java. The Dutch respond by replacing the Arabica firstly with Liberica (a tough, but somewhat unpleasant coffee) and later with Robusta. Today Java's old royally era plantations provide just a portion of the coffee grown on the island. Logo of Java programming language is a coffee cup.

Tuesday, August 07, 2007

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome

Some users of mobile handsets have reported feeling several unspecific symptoms during and after its use, such as flaming and tingling feelings in the skin of the head and extremities, fatigue, sleep disturbances, dizziness, loss of mental attention, reaction times and memory retentiveness, headaches, malaise, tachycardia and disturbances of the digestive system. Some researchers, implying a causal relationship, have named this syndrome as a new diagnostic entity, EHS or ES. The World Health Organization prefers to name it “idiopathic environmental intolerance", in order to avoid the insinuation of causation.

Tuesday, July 31, 2007

Coconut cream

Coconut cream is an mixture of tattered coconut and water. Coconut cream may also be complete with milk instead of water to obtain a richer product. Coconut cream is very comparable to coconut milk but contain less water. The difference is mainly reliability. It has a thicker, more paste-like uniformity, while coconut milk is normally a liquid.

Creamed coconut is disproportionate as coconut cream. Creamed coconut is a very determined coconut takes out without the water. Like coconut oil, it is tough at a low room temperature. It is basically coconut cream ponder, and can be made into coconut cream by mixing it with water, or into coconut milk by adding it with a larger amount of water. It is naturally sold as a 200ml block in a plastic bag inside a small box. In the UK it is easily available (from £0.30 to £1.00 per 200ml block) in Asian convenience stores and in the Asian sections of large supermarkets.

Coconut cream is soaring in healthy medium chain fatty acids and is very wealthy in flavor. Coconut cream is used in Bangladeshi, and its nonalcoholic variant Virgin Piña Coladas, and Piña Coladas cooks often add coconut cream to rice to give it some flavor.

Tuesday, July 24, 2007


Sport is a movement that governs by a set of regulations or rules and frequently engaged in competition. Used by itself, sports usually refer to behavior where the physical capability of the participant are the sole or primary determiner of the outcome (winning or losing), but the term is also used to include behavior such as brainpower sports and cruise sports where mental acuity or apparatus quality are major factors. Sports are used as amusement for the player and the viewer. It has also been established by experiments that daily exercise increases mental strength and power to study.

Keeping pace with the latest sports results is a usual appliance for Semotus wireless technology. As individual sports results come in, they are tailored and sent out to users wirelessly and in real-time. Semotus provides both the technology products and the information services to supply organizations to relay sporting and other information. InfoXtra2 delivers up to the minute content from a variety of leading information sources.

Tuesday, July 17, 2007

Biology of love

Biological models of sex have a tendency to view love as a mammalian drive, much like need or thirst. Helen Fisher, a leading expert in the topic of love, divides the understanding of love into three partly-overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust exposes people to others, romantic attraction gives confidence people to focus their energy on mating, and attachment has tolerating the partner extensive enough to rear a child into infancy.

Lust is the first passionate sexual longing that promotes mating, and has the increased release of chemicals like testosterone and estrogen. These causes seldom last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic want for a particular candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms. Recent studies in neuroscience have indicated that as people fall in love, the brain constantly releases a convinced set of chemicals, together with pheromones, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which act similar to amphetamines, stimulating the brain's pleasure center and leading to side-effects like an increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an extreme feeling of excitement. Research has indicated that this period usually lasts from one and a half to three years.

Since the lust and attraction stages are together considered impermanent, a third stage is needed to account for long-term relationships. Attachment is the bonding which encourages relationships that very last for many years, and even decades. Attachment is in general based on commitments like marriage and children, or on mutual friendship based on things like shared interests. It has been connected to higher levels of the chemicals oxytocin and vasopressin than temporary relationships have.

Sunday, July 08, 2007

Web proxy

Proxies that hub on WWW traffic are called web proxies. Many web proxies try to block offensive web content. Other web proxies reformat web pages for an exact purpose or audience (e.g., cell phones and PDAs or persons with disabilities). Network operators can also set up proxies to intercept computer viruses and other hostile content served from remote web pages.

Many organizations — including schools, corporations, and countries — use proxy servers to implement acceptable network use policies or to provide security, anti-malware and/or caching services. A traditional web proxy is not translucent to the client application, which must be configured to use the proxy (manually or with a configuration script). In some cases, where substitute means of connection to the Internet are available ,the user may be able to avoid policy control by simply resetting the client configuration and bypassing the proxy. Furthermore administration of browser configuration can be a load for network administrators.

Tuesday, July 03, 2007


Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. Though in non-scientific contexts, it usually describes ice Ih, which is the most abundant of these phases. It is a crystalline solid, which can appear transparent or an opaque bluish-white color depending on the presence of impurities such as air. The addition of other materials such as soil may further alter appearance. The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at standard atmospheric pressure. However, it can also deposit from a vapor with no intervening liquid phase such as in the formation of frost. Ice appears in varied forms such as hail, ice cubes, and glaciers. It plays an important role with many meteorological phenomena. The ice caps of the polar regions are of significance for the global climate and particularly the water cycle.

Saturday, June 30, 2007

Education System

Schooling occurs when group or a society or an individual sets up a curriculum to educate people, usually the young. Schooling can become systematic. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrine or ethics as well as knowledge, and this can lead to abuse of the system.

Life-long or adult education have become extensive in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or ultimate learning.

Adult education takes on several forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning. Lending libraries provide cheap informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. Many adults have also taken advantage of the rise in computer ownership and internet access to further their casual education.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007


A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. There are more than a hundred classes of wild roses, all from the northern hemisphere and typically from temperate regions. The species form a group of normally prickly shrubs or climbers, and sometimes trailing plants, reaching 2–5 m tall, hardly ever reaching as high as 20 m by climbing over other plants.
Rose hips are sometimes eaten, mostly for their vitamin C content. They are typically pressed and filtered to make rose-hip syrup, as the fine hairs surrounding the seeds are unpleasant to eat. They can also be used to create herbal tea, jam, jelly and marmalade.

Friday, June 22, 2007

Water abstraction

Water abstraction, or water extraction, is the process of taking water from any source, either temporarily or permanently. Most water is used for irrigation or treatment to produce drinking water.
Depending on the environmental legislation in the relevant country, controls may be located on abstraction to limit the amount of water that can be removed. Over abstraction can lead to rivers drying up or the level of groundwater aquifers reducing unacceptably.
The science of hydrogeology is used to assess safe abstraction levels.

Monday, June 18, 2007


Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earth's ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams, making prediction of tides important for coastal navigation. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides
The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry.Sea level measured by coastal tide gauges may also be strongly affected by wind. More generally, tidal phenomena can occur in other systems besides the ocean, whenever a gravitational field that varies in time and space is present

Friday, June 15, 2007


A watercraft is a vehicle, vessel or craft designed to move across water for pleasure, recreation, physical exercise, commerce, transport of people and goods, and military missions. It is resulting from the term "craft" which was used as term to describe all types of water going vessels. Most watercraft would be described as either a ship or a boat. However, there are a number of craft which many people would consider neither a ship nor a boat, such as: canoes, kayaks, rafts, barges, catamarans, hydrofoils, windsurfers, surfboards (when used as a paddle board), underwater robots, torpedos and jet skis.

Sunday, June 10, 2007

Neem oil

Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of Neem, an evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian sub-continent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics. It is perhaps the most significant of the commercially available products of neem.
Neem oil is typically light to dark brown, bitter and has a rather strong odour that is said to join the odours of peanut and garlic. It comprises mainly triglycerides and large amounts of triterpenoid compounds, which are in charge for the bitter taste. It is hydrophobic in nature and in order to emulisify it in water for application purposes, it must be formulated with suitable surfactants.
Neem oil also contains steroids and a plethora of triterpenoids of which Azadirachtin is the most well known and studied. The Azadirachtin content of Neem Oil varies from 300ppm to over 2000ppm depending on the quality of the neem seeds compressed.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007


Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. By extension, the term fishing is applied to pursuing other aquatic animals such as various types of shellfish, squid, octopus, turtles, frogs, and some edible marine invertebrates. The term fishing is not usually applied to pursuing aquatic mammals such as whales, where the term "whaling" is more appropriate. Fishing is an ancient and worldwide practice with various techniques and traditions and it has been transformed by modern technological developments. In addition to providing food through harvesting fish, modern fishing is both a recreational and professional sport.

Thursday, May 31, 2007

Krill fishery

Krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. Estimates for how much krill there is vary wildly, depending on the methodology used. They range from 125–725 million tonnes of biomass globally. The total global harvest of krill from all fisheries amounts to 150 – 200,000 tonnes annually, mainly Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and North Pacific krill (E. pacifica).

Krill are rich in protein (40% or more of dry weight) and lipids (about 20% in E. superba). Their exoskeleton amounts to some 2% of dry weight of chitin. They also contain traces of a wide array of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, carbohydrases, nucleases and phospholipases, which are intense in the digestive gland in the cephalothorax of the krill.

Most krill is used as aquaculture feed and fish bait; other uses comprise livestock or pet foods. Only a small percentage is prepared for human consumption. Their enzymes are interesting for medical applications, an expanding sector since the early 1990s.

Sunday, May 27, 2007

Shrimp fishery

A shrimp fishery is a fishery directed toward harvesting either shrimp or prawns. Fisheries do not usually differentiate between the two taxa, and the terms are used interchangeably. This article therefore refers to the catching of either shrimp or prawns.

A number of the larger species, including the Atlantic white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), are caught commercially and used for food. Recipes utilizing shrimp form part of the cuisine of many cultures: examples include jambalaya, okonomiyaki, poon choi, bagoong, Kerala and scampi.
Preparing shrimp for consumption usually involves removing the shell, tail, and "sand vein". As with other seafood, shrimp is high in calcium, protein and low in food energy.
Shrimp and prawns are versatile ingredients, and are often used as an accompaniment to fried rice. Common methods of preparation comprise baking, boiling and frying. As stated in the movie Forrest Gump

Monday, May 21, 2007


A ghost is typically defined as the apparition of a deceased person, regularly similar in appearance to that person, and encountered in places he or she frequented, or in association with the person's former belongings. The word "ghost" may also refer to the spirit or soul of a deceased person, or to any spirit or demon.Ghosts are often connected with haunting, which is, according to the Parapsychological Association, "the more or less regular occurrence of paranormal phenomena associated with a particular locality (especially a building) and typically attributed to the activities of a discarnate entity; the phenomena may comprise apparitions, poltergeist disturbances, cold drafts, sounds of steps and voices, and various odours.
Ghosts are controversial phenomena. According to a poll conducted in 2005 by the Gallup Organization, about 32% of Americans consider in the existence of ghosts.The term ghost has been replaced by apparition in parapsychology, because the word ghost is deemed inadequately precise.

Wednesday, May 16, 2007

MIPS-Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages

MIPS designs are used in a lot of embedded systems such as the Series2 TiVo, Windows CE devices, Cisco routers, and video game consoles similar to the Nintendo 64 and Sony PlayStation, PlayStation 2, and PlayStation Portable handheld system. Until late 2006 they were also used in a lot of SGI's computer products.

Near the beginning MIPS architectures were 32-bit implementations, while later versions were 64-bit implementations. Multiple revisions of the MIPS instruction set exist, including MIPS I, MIPS II, MIPS III, MIPS IV, MIPS V, MIPS32, and MIPS64. The current revisions are MIPS32 (for 32-bit implementations) and MIPS64 for (64-bit implementations). MIPS32 and MIPS64 define a control register set as well as the instruction set. Several "add-on" extensions are also available, including MIPS-3D which is a simple set of floating-point SIMD orders dedicated to common 3D tasks, MDMX which is a more extensive integer SIMD instruction set using the 64-bit floating-point registers, MIPS16e which adds density to the instruction stream to make programs take up less room, and the recent addition of MIPS MT, new multithreading additions to the system similar to Hyper Threading in the Intel's Pentium 4 processors.

Sunday, May 13, 2007

Snake River

The Snake River is a river in the western part of the United States. The Snake River is 1,038 miles in length, and is the Columbia River's main branch. The Lewis and Clark expedition was the first major U.S. investigation of the river, and the Snake was once known as the Lewis River.

The Snake originates near the Continental Divide in Yellowstone National Park in NW Wyoming and flows south to Jackson Lake in Grand Teton National Park and long-ago the town of Jackson. The river flows down Snake River Canyon, then enters Idaho at the Palisades Reservoir and joins with the Henrys Fork River near Rigby. Note: inhabitants of eastern Idaho generally call the Snake prior to this joining the "South Fork of the Snake", individual it from the Henrys Fork.
Tributaries of the Snake contain the Henrys Fork River, the Boise River, the Salmon River, and the Clearwater River.

The Snake River's lots of hydroelectric power plants are a major source of electricity in the region. Its watershed provides irrigation for various projects, including the Minidoka, Boise, Palisades, and Owyhee projects by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, as well as a diversity of private projects such as at Twin Falls. However, these dams have also had an adverse environmental effect on wildlife, most notably on wild salmon migrations.
The Snake runs through a number of gorges, including one of the deepest in the world, Hells Canyon, with a greatest depth of 7,900 feet.
The name "Snake" possibly derived from an S-shaped sign which the Shoshone Indians made with their hands to mimic swimming salmon variation names of the river have included:

Tuesday, May 08, 2007


Music is an art form that involves what are sometimes organised sounds and silence, although in some forms of 20th century aleatoric, and certainly improvisational music, as well as most Eastern traditions such as Gamelou, this is not the case. It is expressed in terms of pitch (which includes melody and harmony), rhythm (which includes tempo and meter), and the quality of sound .Music may also engage generative forms in time through the building of patterns and combinations of natural stimuli, principally sound. Music may be used for artistic or aesthetic, communicative, entertainment, ceremonial or religious purposes and by many composers purly as an academic instrument for study.The description of what constitutes music varies according to culture and social context, with varied interpretations of the term being accepted under sub-genres of the art. Within "the arts", music can be classified as a performing art, a fine art, or an auditory art form.

Friday, May 04, 2007

Columbia River

The Columbia River is a river located in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It is the biggest river in volume flowing into the Pacific Ocean from North America, and the second largest in the United States. It is the largest hydroelectric power producing river in North America. From its headwaters to the Pacific Ocean it flows 1,270 miles, and drains 258,000 square

Monday, April 30, 2007

Stamp Collecting

Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects, such as. It is one of the world's most trendy hobbies, with estimates of the number of collectors ranging up to 20 million in the US alone.

Collecting is not the similar as philately, which is the study of stamps. A philatelist often does, but need not, collect the objects of study, nor is it required to closely study what one collects. Many informal collectors enjoy accumulating stamps without worrying about the tiny details, but the creation of a large or wide-ranging collection generally requires some philatelic knowledge.

The primary postage stamp, the One Penny Black, was issued by Britain in 1840. It pictured a young Queen Victoria, was formed without perforations, and accordingly had to be cut from the sheet with scissors in order to be used. While unused examples of the "Penny Black" are quite scarce, used examples are common, and may be purchased for $25 to $150, depending upon state.

Queen Victoria's outline was a staple on 19th century stamps of the British Empire; here on a half-penny of the Falkland Islands, 1891.During the late 1800s many of those collectors, now adults, began to systematically study the available postage stamps and published research works on their manufacture, plate flaws, etc.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007

Sitka Spruce

The Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) is a large evergreen tree growing to 50-70 m tall, exceptionally to 96 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 5 m. It is by far the main species of spruce, and the third tallest tree species in the world (after Coast Redwood and Coast Douglas-fir).Young Sitka Spruce in a forestry plantation in Britain The bark is thin and scaly, flaking off in small circular plates 5-20 cm across. The crown is broad conic in young trees, becoming cylindric in older trees; old trees may have no branches in the lowest 30-40 m. The shoots are very pale buff-brown, almost white, and glabrous (hairless) but with prominent pulvini. The leaves are stiff, sharp and needle-like, 15-25 mm long, flattened in cross-section, dark glaucous blue-green above with two or three thin lines of stomata, and blue-white below with two dense bands of stomata.

The cones are pendulous, slender cylindrical, 5-11 cm long and 2 cm broad when closed, opening to 3 cm broad. They have thin, flexible scales 15-20 mm long; the bracts just above the scales are the longest of any spruce, occasionally just exserted and visible on the closed cones. They are green or reddish, maturing pale brown 5-7 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 3 mm long, with a slender, 7-9 mm long pale brown wing.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007


Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is able to be seen to the eye or, in a technical or scientific setting, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength. The three basic dimensions of are:
Intensity (or brilliance or amplitude, professed by humans as the glow of the light),
Frequency (or wavelength, apparent by humans as the color of the light), and
Polarization (or angle of shaking and not audible by humans under ordinary circumstances)
Due to wave-particle duality, light at the same time exhibits properties of both waves and particles. The exact nature of light is one of the key questions of modern physics.

Visible electromagnetic radiation

Visible light is the piece of the electromagnetic spectrum between the frequencies of 380 THz and 750 THz. The speed, frequency, and wavelength of a wave obey the relation:
Because the speed of light in a vacuum is fixed, able to be seen light can also be characterized by its wavelength of between 400 nanometers and 800 nm.
Speed of light
Main article: velocity of light
Even though some people express of the "velocity of light", the word velocity should be kept back for vector quantities, that is, those with both magnitude and way. The speed of light is a scalar quantity, having only magnitude and no direction, and therefore speed is the correct term.
The speed of light has been measured many times, by many physicists. The best early measurement is Ole Rømer's, in 1676. By observing the motions of Jupiter and one of its moons, Io, with a get smaller, and noting discrepancies in the apparent period of Io's orbit, Rømer calculated a speed of 227,000 kilometers per second.

Tuesday, April 10, 2007

Home computer

The home computer is a consumer-friendly word for the second generation of microcomputers, entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s.
The home computer became affordable for the general public due to the mass production of the silicon chip based microprocessor and as the name indicates, tended to be used in the home rather than in business/industrial contexts (the name also marks the difference from the first generation of microcomputers (from 1974/75 onwards) which catered mostly to engineers and hobbyists with good soldering skills, as they were often sold as kits to be assembled by the customer). The home computer largely died out at the end of the decade or in the early 1990s (in Europe) due to the rise of the IBM PC compatible personal computer (the IBM PC and its clones are not covered in this article).

Friday, April 06, 2007


Artistamp refers to a postage stamp-like artform. It is like to a Cinderella stamp, in that it is not valid for postage, but it differs from a forgery or a bogus stamp in that (typically) no intention is made to fool any post office or collector of stamps. The artistamp is intended to be a miniature artform which can depict or commemorate any subject its creator chooses.
Techniques for the creation of artistamps may or may not comprise perforating the boundaries of the piece to more resemble a (water-activated) stamp, as well as applying gum to the reverse side of the paper. (Self-adhesive artistamps have also been made, however, and indeed artistamps have been issued in practically every format in which postage stamps have been—including souvenir sheets, and perhaps more.) Whole sheets of such stamps are often made at one time. The artwork can be hand-drawn or painted, lithographed or offset-printed, photographed, xeroxed, rubber stamped, or even output by computer-driven printer.

Monday, April 02, 2007

Sea water

Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. On average, sea water in the world's oceans has a salinity of ~3.5%. This means that for each 1 liter (1000mL) of sea water there are 35 grams of salts (mostly, but not entirely, sodium chloride) dissolved in it. This can be expressed as 0.6M NaCl. Water with this level of osmolality is, of course, not potable.
Sea water is not consistently saline throughout the world. The planet's freshest sea water is in the Gulf of Finland, part of the Baltic Sea. The most saline open sea is the Red Sea, where high temperatures and restricted circulation result in high rates of surface evaporation and there is little fresh inflow from rivers. The salinity in isolated seas can be considerably greater.
The density of sea water is between 1020 and 1030 kg/m3. Due to chemical buffering, seawater pH is limited to the range 7.5 to 8.4.

Thursday, March 29, 2007


Wood is the xylem tissue of woody plants, especially trees but also shrubs. Wood from the latter is only formed in small sizes, reducing the diversity of uses. Wood is a hygroscopic, cellular and anisotropic material. Dry wood is composed of fibers of cellulose (40%–50%) and hemicellulose (20%–30%) held together by lignin (25%–30%).
Artists can use wood to make delicate sculptures.Wood has been used by man for millenia for lots of purposes, being many things to many people. One of its main uses is as fuel. It might also be used as a material, for making artworks, boats, buildings, furniture, ships, tools, weapons, etc. Wood has been an important construction material since humans began building shelters, and remains in plentiful use today. Construction wood is normally known as timber in International English, and lumber in American English. Wood can be broken down and be made into chipboard, engineered wood, hardboard, medium-density fibreboard, oriented strand board, paper or used to make other synthetic substances.

Monday, March 26, 2007


Banksia is a genus of around 80 species in the plant family Proteaceae. They are native to Australia, occurring in all but the most arid areas. Easily recognized by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones", Banksia are a well-known Australian wildflower and a popular garden plant. They grow in forms varying from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 25 metres tall. They are normally known as Banksias or Australian Honeysuckle Trees.
Banksias grow as trees or woody shrubs. The largest trees, the Coast Banksia, B. integrifolia, and the River Banksia, B. seminuda, often grow over 15 metres tall, and may be up to 25 metres tall. Banksia species that grow as shrubs are typically erect, but there are some species that are prostrate, with branches that grow on or below the soil.
The leaves of Banksia vary greatly among species. Sizes vary from the narrow, 1–1½ centimetre long leaves of the Heath-leaved Banksia, B. ericifolia, to the very large leaves of the Bull Banksia, B. grandis, which may be up to 45 centimetres long. The leaves of most species have serrated edges, but a few, such as B. integrifolia, do not. Leaves are usually arranged along the branches in irregular spirals, but in some species they are crowded together in whorls.
Banksias are most without difficulty recognised by their characteristic flower spike, and the woody fruiting structures that appear after flowering. The flower spike consists of a central woody axis with a furry coating; it is usually held erect, but hangs down in a few species. This axis is enclosed in tightly-packed pairs of flowers, which are attached to the axis at right angles. A single flower spike may have over a thousand flowers.

Wednesday, March 21, 2007


Nectarine tree in full flower The nectarine is a variation of peach that has a fuzzless skin. Though grocers treat fuzzy peaches and nectarines as dissimilar fruits, they belong to the same species. Nectarines have arisen many times from fuzzy peaches, often as bud sports. Nectarines can be white, yellow, clingstone, or freestone. Regular peach trees infrequently produce a few nectarines, and vice versa. Nectarines are more simply damaged than fuzzy peaches. The history of the nectarine is unclear; the first recorded mention is from 1616 in England, but they had probably been grown very much earlier in central Asia.

Friday, March 16, 2007

Amazon Rainforest

From the east of the Andes, the Amazon Rainforest begins. It is the biggest rainforest in the world and is of great ecological significance, as its biomass is capable of absorbing enormous amounts of carbon dioxide. Conservation of the Amazon Rainforest has been a main issue in recent years.
The rainforest is supported by the extremely wet climate of the Amazon basin. The Amazon, and its hundreds of tributaries, flow gradually across the landscape, with an enormously shallow gradient sending them towards the sea: Manaus, 1,600 km (1,000 mi) from the Atlantic, is only 44 m (144 ft) above sea level.
The biodiversity within the rainforest is extraordinary: the region is home to at least 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, and some 2,000 birds and mammals. One fifth of all the world's species of birds can be found in the Amazon rainforest.
The diversity of plant species in the Amazon basin is the highest on Earth. Some experts estimate that one square kilometre may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants. One square kilometre of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,000 tons of living plants.

Sunday, March 11, 2007


Kullu is the capital town of the Kullu district, in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. It is situated on the banks of the Beas River in the Kullu Valley about ten kilometres north of the airport at Bhuntar. In the nearby Lug valley are placed the main forest contractors who have been extracting timber from the forests for the last 150 years and continue to do so today.
Kullu is the administrative capital with the offices of District Collector, the Superintendent of Police and the District courts. It is also the biggest and the most varied constituency for the lower house of the parliament.
As of 2001 India census,GRIndia Kullu had a population of 18,306. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Kullu has an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 84%, and female literacy is 77%. In Kullu, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Tuesday, March 06, 2007

Science and technology in Japan

Japan is a foremost nation in the fields of scientific research, technology, machinery and medical research with the world's third biggest budget for research and development at US$130 billion, and over 677,000 researchers.
Some of Japan's more important technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, machinery, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing.It also produced QRIO, ASIMO, and Aibo. Japan is also home to six of the world's 15 biggest automobile manufacturers and seven of the world 20 largest semiconductor sales leaders.
Japan has also made headway into aerospace research and space exploration. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducts space and planetary research, aviation research, and growth of rockets and satellites. It also built the Japanese Experiment Module, which is slated to be launched and added to the International Space Station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2007 and 2008.

Thursday, March 01, 2007

Constituents of sand

The most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), typically in the form of quartz, which, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is resistant to weathering. The composition of sand varies according to local rock sources and conditions. The bright white sands originate in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are ground-up limestone. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with significant feldspar content which is derived from the weathering and erosion of a (usually nearby) granite. Some locations have sands that contain magnetite, chlorite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derivative from volcanic basalts. The chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are usually green in color, as are sands derived from basalts (lavas) with a high olivine content. The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Sand deposits in some areas have garnets and other resistant minerals, with some small gemstones.

Sunday, February 25, 2007


An industry is normally any grouping of businesses that share a common method of generating profits, such as the music industry, the automobile industry, or the cattle industry. It is also used particularly to refer to an area of economic production focused on manufacturing which involves large amounts of capital investment before any profit can be realized, also called "heavy industry.As-of 2004, Financial services is the major industry or category of industries in the world in terms of earnings.
Industry in the second sense became a key sector of manufacture in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, which upset previous mercantile and feudal economies through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the growth of steam engines, power looms, and advances in large scale steel and coal production. Industrial countries then assumed a capitalist economic policy. Railroads and steam-powered ships began quickly integrating previously impossibly-distant world markets, enabling private companies to develop to then-unheard of size and wealth. Manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy. Other sectors such as the service sector tend to be wealth consuming sectors. Following the Industrial Revolution, perhaps a third of the world's financial output is derived from manufacturing industries—more than agriculture's share.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

Child carrier

A child carrier (also called a baby carrier) is a device used to take an infant or small child. This can be on the body of an adult, or individually. On-the-body carriers are considered in various forms such as slings, backpack carriers, and soft front or hip carriers, with varying materials and degrees of rigidity, decoration, support and confinement of the child. Slings, soft front carriers, and "carrycots" are naturally used for infants who lack the ability to sit or to hold their head up. Frame backpack carriers (a change of the frame backpack) and hip carriers, as well as certain styles of slings, are used for older children.

Wednesday, February 14, 2007


Penguins are excellently adapted to an aquatic life. Their wings have grow to be flippers, useless for flight in the air. In the water, however, penguins are astonishingly agile. Within the soft plumage a layer of air is preserved, ensuring buoyancy. The air layer also helps protect the birds in cold waters. On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for their upright stance.
All penguins are counter shaded - that is, they have a white underside and a dark (mostly black) upperside. This is for camouflage. A predator looking up from below (such as an orca or a leopard seal) has difficulty distinctive between a white penguin belly and the reflective water surface. The dark plumage on their backs camouflages them from over.
Diving penguins reach 6 to 12 km/h (3.7 to 7.5 mph), although there are information of velocities of 27 km/h (17 mph) (which are more practical in the case of startled flight). The small penguins do not generally dive deep; they catch their prey near the surface in dives that normally last only one or two minutes. Larger penguins can dive deep in case of need. Dives of the large Emperor Penguin have been recorded which get to a depth of 565 m (1870 ft) and last up to 20 minutes.
Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow, a movement called "tobogganing", which allows them to keep energy and move fairly fast at the same time.Penguins have an superb sense of hearing. Their eyes are personalized for underwater vision, and are their primary means of locating prey and avoiding predators; in air, equally, they are nearsighted. Their common sense of smell has not been researched so far.They are able to drink salt water securely because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstreamThe salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages.

Tuesday, February 06, 2007


Software basically is the distinct image or representation of physical or material position that constitute configuration to or functional identity of a machine, usually a computer. As a substance of memory, software in principle can be changed without the alteration to the static paradigm of the hardware thus without the remanufacturing thereof. generally software is of an algorithmic form which translates into being to a progression of machine instructions. Some software, however, is of a relational form which translate into being the map of a recognition network.
Software is a program that enables a computer to achieve a specific task, as contrasting to the physical components of the system (hardware). This include application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to achieve a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run suitably, by interfacing with hardware and with other software.
The term "software" was first used in this intellect by John W. Tukey in 1957. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer program. The perception of reading different sequences of instructions into the memory of a apparatus to control computations was invented by Charles Babbage as part of his difference engine. The theory that is the source for most modern software was first projected by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungs problem.
TypesPractical computer systems partition software into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the division is subjective, and often blurred.
* System software is one of the major class helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes working systems, device drivers, analytical tools, servers, windowing systems, utilities and more. The intention of systems software is to protect the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of theexacting computer complex being use, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory procedure as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc.
* Programming software usually provide tools to support a programmer in writing computer programs and software with different programming languages in a more suitable way.The tools comprise text editors, compilers, interpreters, linkers, debuggers, and so on, An incorporated development environment (IDE) merge those tools into a software bundle, and a programmer may not need to type various command for compiling, interpreter, debugging, tracing, and etc., because the IDE typically has an sophisticated graphical user interface, or GUI.
* Application software allows humans to complete one or more explicit (non-computer related) tasks. typical applications include manufacturingautomation, business software, educational software, medical software, databases and computer games. Businesses are possibly the biggest users of application software, but approximately every field of human action now uses some form of application software. It is used tocomputerizeall sorts of functions.

Friday, January 26, 2007

Journalism Basics

Journalism is a concrete, professionally oriented major that involves gathering, interpreting, distilling, and other reporting information to the general audiences through a variety of media means. Journalism majors learn about every possible kind of Journalism (including magazine, newspaper, online journalism, photojournalism, broadcast journalism, and public relations).
That's not all, though. In addition to dedicated training in writing, editing, and reporting, Journalism wants a working knowledge of history, culture, and current events. You'll more than likely be required to take up a broad range of courses that runs the range from statistics to the hard sciences to economics to history. There would also be a lot of haughty talk about professional ethics and civic responsibility too - and you'll be tested on it. To top it all off, you'll perhaps work on the university newspaper or radio station, or possibly complete an internship with a magazine or a mass media conglomerate.

Friday, January 12, 2007

Historical background of real estate

History of the wordThe word 'real' in the context of 'real estate' is not the opposite of 'unreal' but is in fact derived from the same source as the word 'royal'. An illustration of this is found today in the name of soccer team Real Madrid, meaning Royal Madrid.
Interpretations varyWhen the word 'real' was originally used in conjunction with the word 'property', it had the literal meaning under common law of royal property. Translated for application in the United Kingdom today, this term refers to Crown property (since the real property rights of the British Royal Family were amended under the Act of Settlement.) However, since Scotland is not a common law jurisdiction, its strict interpretation today differs from that of its application to England and Wales and other localities where common law does apply.
Within international jurisdictions, such as those states of the United States where common law is applicable (and not all states are common law states), the term refers to both the land owned by the federal government; land owned by the state; land owned by Indian tribes (where applicable), and the land owned by individuals and companies within that state. This is in contrast to all other property in such states which is then deemed to be 'personal' property.
Even when common law is the governing law, interpretations of real property under common law vary according to the jurisdiction.

DefinitionsAn important area of real immovable property are the definitions of estates in land. These are various interests that may limit the ownership rights one has over the land. The most common and perhaps most absolute type of estate is the fee simple which signifies that the owner has the right to dispose of the property as she/he sees fit. Other estates include the life estate where the owner's rights to the property cease at their death and fee tail estates where the property at the time of death passes to the heirs of the body (i.e. children, grandchildren, descendants) of the owner of the estate before he died.